Socioeconomic deprivation profile

This section provides information on socioeconomic deprivation, using the New Zealand Index of Deprivation (NZDep).

Higher levels of socioeconomic deprivation are associated with worse health. There are also connections between socioeconomic deprivation and environmental risk.

New Zealand Index of Deprivation (NZDep)

The NZDep is an area-based measure of socioeconomic deprivation in New Zealand [1]. It measures the level of deprivation for people in each small area. It is based on nine Census variables.

NZDep is displayed as deciles. Each NZDep decile contains about 10% of small areas in New Zealand.

  • Decile 1 represents areas with the least deprived scores
  • Decile 10 represents areas with the most deprived scores

It is important to note that:

  • NZDep estimates relative socioeconomic deprivation for areas, not people.
  • NZDep should not be used to look at changes in absolute deprivation over time as 10% of areas will always have the most deprived scores.
  • The indicators used for each NZDep may change from Census to Census.

NZDep for 2018 (NZDep2018)

The NZDep for 2018 (NZDep2018) provides a deprivation score for each Statistical Area 1 (SA1) (and its constituent meshblocks) in New Zealand (Figure 1). The map in Figure 1 shows NZDep2018 deciles at the SA2 level, and when you zoom in at the SA1 level.

Figure 1: NZDep2018, by statistical area 1 (SA1) and statistical area 2 (SA2), 2018

NZDep for 2013 (NZDep2013)

The NZDep for 2013 (NZDep2013) provides a deprivation score for each meshblock (MB) in New Zealand (Figure 2). MBs are the smallest geographical area defined by StatsNZ, with a population of around 60-110 people. The map in Figure 2 shows NZDep2013 deciles at the area unit (AU) level, and when you zoom in at the MB level.

Figure 2: NZDep2013, by area unit (AU) and meshblock (MB), 2013

People in more deprived areas are more vulnerable to environmental risks

In general, people who live in more deprived areas (for example, NZDep2018 decile 9 and 10) are more susceptible to environmental risks.  They may also have less capacity to cope with the effects of environmental risks, and fewer resources to protect themselves from environmental hazards.

  • They may not be able to afford good quality housing or a house large enough for their family.
  • They may not be able to afford to heat their house adequately or insulate it.
  • They may not have money to repaint their house before it gets in poor condition, exposing them to lead paint dust.
  • They may not have a car to drive to health care services, or move away from a flood risk.
  • They may live closer to environmental hazards such as industrial sites or main transport routes.
  • They may work and live with much higher levels of environmental stress (such as noise, overcrowding, and less security), which may put them at higher risk of psycho-social health problems.
  • They may be more likely to have access to poor quality drinking-water supplies [3].

Information about the data

The New Zealand Index of Deprivation 2018 (NZDep2018) and 2013 (NZDep2013) are based on the following Census variables [1, 2]:

NZDep2013

NZDep 2018

People aged under 65 years with no access to the Internet at home

People with no access to the Internet at home

People aged 18-64 years receiving a means-tested benefit

People aged 18-64 receiving a means tested benefit

People living in equivalised* households with income below an income threshold

People living in equivalised* households with income below an income threshold

People aged 18-64 years who are unemployed

People aged 18-64 who are unemployed

People aged 18-64 years without any qualifications

People aged 18-64 without any qualifications

People not living in their own home

People not living in their own home

People aged  under 65 living in a single parent family

People aged  under 65 living in a single parent family

People living in equivalised* households below a bedroom occupancy threshold

People living in equivalised* households below a bedroom occupancy threshold

People with no access to a car

People living in dwellings that are always damp and/or always have mould greater than A4 size

Note: Equivalisation is a method used to control for household composition.

References

1. Atkinson J, Salmond C, Crampton P. 2014. NZDep2013 Index of Deprivation. Wellington: Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington. Available online: http://www.otago.ac.nz/wellington/research/hirp/otago020194.html

2. Atkinson J, Salmond C, Crampton P. 2019. NZDep2018 Index of Deprivation. Interim Research Report, December 2019. Wellington: Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington. URL: https://www.otago.ac.nz/wellington/departments/publichealth/research/hirp/otago020194.html

3. Hales S, Black W, Skelly C, Salmond C, Weinstein P. 2003. Social deprivation and the public health risks of community drinking water supplies in New Zealand. J Epidemiol Community Health 57:581-583. doi: 10.1136/jech.57.8.581

 

Useful links Back to Top