Annual key findings

  • Climate Change
    Most years since 2010 had more hot and fewer cold days compared to the baseline. Extreme rainfall in 2022 affected the same regions as Cyclone Gabrielle in 2023.
  • Indoor Environment
    Maternal smoking decreased over the past decade, with Māori rates down 10 percentage points. Census data is limited for heating, crowding and second-hand smoke exposure.
  • Water quality
    The percentage of New Zealanders with access to registered and/or fluoridated drinking water has not changed in the past decade.
  • Air Quality
    WHO air quality guidelines were exceeded at most stations monitoring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 2020.

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